# Table of Contents

- Page ID
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The world of electronics was initially dominated by analogue signals—that is, signals representing a continuous range of values. In digital circuitry, however, there are only two states: on and off, also referred to as 1 and 0, respectively. Digital information has its roots back in the Victorian era thanks to George Boole, who developed the idea of Boolean algebra.

Every aspect of our lives is increasingly becoming integrated and connected by the Internet of Things (IoT), which consists of computers and embedded systems. These devices are controlled by software which at its core is Boolean logic in conjunction with digital information. The world around us is analogue, but with every passing day our interaction with the world is becoming more digital and more integrated.

## 7: Boolean Algebra

All arithmetic operations performed with Boolean quantities have but one of two possible outcomes: either 1 or 0. There is no such thing as “2” or “-1” or “1/2” in the Boolean world. It is a world in which all other possibilities are invalid by fiat. Boolean algebra could be applied to on-and-off circuits, where all signals are characterized as either “high” (1) or “low” (0).