Preface
 Page ID
 7080
There are a number of ways to solve waterworks mathematics problems. Many water operators look for short cuts in numbers like 448.8, 0.646, and 1440. However, understanding the process you take to get the answer is the key to “knowing” what you are doing versus “memorizing” what you are doing. There are certainly several useful numbers you can put to memory to make solving many of these problems easier, but knowing why you are using a specific “conversion factor” (number) is truly the key to your comprehension. This text is designed to provide you with basic knowledge and background of elementary mathematical problems and an understanding of typical entrylevel and intermediate mathematical problems in the waterworks field.
Many of you will be preparing for a statecertified exam. This class will help you in your preparation for beginning distribution and treatment exams. However, this is not a “review” course for these exams. This text is designed to help you understand how to solve waterrelated mathematics problems. However, in preparation for a state or any exam, there are a number of things you should know.
Testtaking Tips

Use a nonprogrammable calculator. The state exams do not allow programmable calculators and you should get used to one calculator.

Have several sharpened pencils

Take your time and verify your answers. This is especially helpful with mathematics questions.

Eliminate as many answers as possible in multiplechoice problems. Statistically your chances of getting the answer correct become better.

Do not overprepare the morning before the state exam. If you don’t know the material the day of the exam, you probably won’t know it by the time the exam starts.

Get a good night's sleep the night before an exam

Get to the exam site early. It is better to be early than late and risk the chance of being locked out of the exam.
Acronyms and Units of Measure
Acronyms 

feet 
ft 
inches 
in 
yard 
yd 
mile 
mi 
square feet 
sq.ft or ft^{2} 
square inches 
sq.in or in^{2} 
acre 
ac 
acrefeet 
af 
gallons 
gal 
cubic feet 
cf or ft 
liters 
L 
milliliters 
mL 
million gallons 
MG 
pounds 
lbs 
million gallons per day 
MGD 
cubic feet per second 
cfs 
gallons per minute 
gpm 
Linear 

1 foot 
12 inches 
1 yard 
3 feet 
1 mile 
5,280 feet 
Area 

1 square foot (sq.ft or ft^{2}) 
144 square inches (sq.in or in^{2}) 
1 acre (ac) 
43,560 ft^{2} 
Volume 

1 cubic foot (cf or ft^{3}) 
7.48 gallon (gal) 
1 cubic yard (yd^{3}) 
27 cubic feet (cf) 
1 gallon 
3.785 liters (L) 
1 liter (L) 
1,000 milliliters (mL) 
1 acrefoot (af) 
325,829 gallons 
1 milliongallon (MG) 
1,000,000 gallons 
Weight 

1 cf of water 
62.4 pounds (lbs) 
1 gallon of water 
8.34 pounds 
1 ton 
2,000 pounds 
Short Cuts (NOT ADVISED) 

1 MGD 
1.547 cfs 
1 cfs 
0.646 MGD 
1 cfs 
646,272 gpd 
1 MGD 
694.44 gpm 
1 cfs 
448.8 gpm 
1 day 
1,440 minutes 
And a whole bunch more!