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2.2: Official Statistics

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    Official statistics are gathered from various criminal justice agencies, such as the police and courts, and represent the total number of crimes reported to the police or the number of arrests made by that agency. Remember, if an officer uses discretion and does not arrest a person, even if a crime was committed, this does not get reported.

    [1] The UCR began in 1929 by the International Association of Chiefs of Police to meet the need for reliable uniform crime statistics for the nation. In 1930, the FBI was tasked with collecting, publishing, and archiving those statistics. Every year there are four annual publications produced from data received from more than 18,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily participating in the program. [2]

    National Incident-Based Reporting System, or NIBRS

    [3] NIBRS also collects information on victims, known offenders, relationships between victims and offenders, arrestees, and property involved in the crimes. See the link to go directly to NIBRS

    Hate Crime Statistics


    • Anti-American Indian or Alaska Native
    • Anti-Arab
    • Anti-Asian
    • Anti-Black or African American
    • Anti-Hispanic or Latino
    • Anti-Multiple Races, Group
    • Anti-Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
    • Anti-Other Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry
    • Anti-White


    • Anti-Buddhist
    • Anti-Catholic
    • Anti-Eastern Orthodox (Russian, Greek, Other)
    • Anti-Hindu
    • Anti-Islamic
    • Anti-Jehovah’s Witness
    • Anti-Jewish
    • Anti-Mormon
    • Anti-Multiple Religions, Group
    • Anti-Other Christian
    • Anti-Other Religion
    • Anti-Protestant
    • Anti-Atheism/Agnosticism/etc.

    Sexual Orientation

    • Anti-Bisexual
    • Anti-Gay (Male)
    • Anti-Heterosexual
    • Anti-Lesbian
    • Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender (Mixed Group)


    • Anti-Mental Disability
    • Anti-Physical Disability


    • Anti-Male
    • Anti-Female

    Gender Identity

    • Anti-Transgender
    • Anti-Gender Non-Conforming
    • Incidents and offenses by bias motivation: Includes crimes committed by and crimes directed against juveniles. Incidents may include one or more offense types.
    • Victims: The types of victims collected for hate crime incidents include individuals (adults and juveniles), businesses, institutions, and society as a whole.
    • Offenders: The number of offenders (adults and juveniles), and when possible, the race and ethnicity of the offender or offenders as a group.
    • Location type: One of 46 location types can be designated.
    • Hate crime by jurisdiction: Includes data about hate crimes by state and agency.

    Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted Program LEOKA


    LEOKA Data

    Exclusions from the LEOKA Program’s Data Collection

    • Natural causes such as heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, etc.
    • On duty, but death is attributed to their own personal situation such as domestic violence, neighbor conflict, etc.
    • Suicide
    • Corrections/correctional officers
    • Bailiffs
    • Parole/probation officers
    • Federal judges
    • The U.S. and assistant U.S. attorneys
    • Bureau of Prison officers
    • Private security officers

    Bureau of Justice Statistics Exercise
    Examine current state AND city crime trends in the past five years.
    Second, pick a state AND city interested in living in and examine the crime trends for the past five years.

    1. U.S. Department of Justice. (2017). UCR Reports
    2. U.S. Department of Justice. (2017). UCR Reports
    3. Rantala, R. R. (2000). Effects of NIBRS on crime statistics. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Washington, DC.
    4. FBI (2017).

    This page titled 2.2: Official Statistics is shared under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Alison S. Burke, David Carter, Brian Fedorek, Tiffany Morey, Lore Rutz-Burri, & Shanell Sanchez (OpenOregon) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.