Skip to main content
Workforce LibreTexts

1.4: Creative- Food Practices Photo Essay

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)
    Through Their Eyes
    Lynn M. Walters, PhD, Licensed Nutritionist (NM), is the founder of Cooking with Kids, Inc., a non-profit organization that educates and empowers children and families to make healthy food choices through hands-on learning with fresh, affordable foods from diverse cultures. She is co-editor of Food as Communication: Communication as Food, author of Cooking at the Natural Cafe in Santa Fe, and co-author of The Cooking with Kids Cookbook. She is interested in how the practices of growing food and cooking can support health equity and encourage positive behavior change at the individual, family, and community levels.

    Learning Outcomes

    After reading and discussing this photo essay, students should be able to:

    • Articulate a number of perspectives perceived by high school students on the influences on their food practices.
    • Identify how food systems can help produce (and threaten) social equity.
    • Describe the use of visual research methods in food studies.

    Insights from a New Mexico Classroom on Factors that Influence Food Practices

    In light of significant changes in food practices that began in the mid-twentieth century, many of which have led to unhealthy dietary patterns that have contributed to increased prevalence of overweight and correlated chronic diseases, it is important to understand factors that influence the ways young people eat. Increasing understanding about how family, culture, and cooking influence dietary habits can inform health communication and nutrition education interventions, as well as spur public policy strategies that promote healthy eating behavior.

    New Mexico is a land of contrasts, with big skies, high mountains, sweeping deserts, and a deep and rich cultural history. Native Americans have lived in New Mexico for thousands of years. The Spanish colonized New Mexico in 1598, but it was not until 1912 that it became the 47th U.S. state. Hispanic/Latinx, Anglo, and Native American cultures are the three major population groups, with the largest percentage per capita of Hispanic/Latinx and the second largest percentage per capita of Native Americans. Hispanic/Latinx in New Mexico are in themselves a diverse group, including those of Spanish heritage, along with Mexican and Central and South American immigrants. It is estimated that about one-third of residents speak Spanish. New Mexico is known for its Native American and Spanish Colonial art, and artists from across the world have long been drawn to the light and landscape. The state also consistently ranks at or near the bottom of the educational and economic ladders in the U.S., and has a high degree of food insecurity.

    The foodways of New Mexico reflect the varied geography and climatic conditions of the state, as well as the deep agricultural traditions and cultural diversity of its peoples. Chile, corn, beans, squash, and piñon nuts all originated in the Americas. They are important food crops in New Mexico, and the basis for many traditional dishes. New Mexican cuisine is famous for its chile, grown in New Mexico for at least four hundred years. Chile develops its spicy and sweet flavors in the hot summer fields. The state question, “Red or Green?” refers to red or green chile.

    This photo essay is the outcome of qualitative research conducted as a dissertation project at the University of New Mexico.[1] It presents the first-person perspectives and insights of 14 eleventh-grade New Mexico high school students on the influences on their food practices.[2] Students visually documented their food practices for five days, wrote a photo-elicitation essay, compared food memories with daily food practices, and participated in focus groups and follow-up interviews.[3]

    CUltural Heritage of FAMILY

    Family and culture are inextricably intertwined, and cultural traditions are enacted, preserved, and evolve through family food practices. All of the students in the project expressed strong attachment to and valuing of the cultural culinary heritage of their families. Among students with close ties to Mexico, and those whose families have lived in New Mexico for generations, whether of Spanish and/or Native American heritage, it was more common to find a particularly strong view of the connection between culture and family than among the Anglo student participants.

    The following photographs (see Figures 1 to 10) provide a glimpse into cultural practices enacted through family food traditions. The images primarily depict food traditions from Northern New Mexico and Mexico (the cultures of the majority of student participants), and are interspersed with Native American food traditions and others.

    What foods do you associate with your family traditions?

    close up of a bowl of broth with vegetables
    Figure 1: “My mom was making caldo de res… My parents didn’t have money to buy good food like a hamburger, but they could buy potatoes for 10 cents or whatever they could find and they would put it all together.” [Candelaria (FHM)]
    a plate of food with tortillas and rice, vegetables, and meat
    Figure 2: “This plate means to me family…fajitas with rice, bell peppers, spinach, in a flour tortilla.” [Candelaria (FHM)]
    two pots on a stove top with red soup in them
    Figure 3: “My mom made this kind of soup, with shrimp, jalapenos… with love.” [Vicente (MHM)]
    a pot full of cooking lentils
    Figure 4: “Lentejas.” [Candelaria (FHM)]
    a person in a kitchen holding a tortilla above a panful of oil
    Figure 5: “My mom was frying tortillas…. Since corn tortillas usually break easily, we…dip them in oil and water; olive oil is fine. You just dip ’em in, soak them a little bit, then put them on the pan. They’ll be softer and more flexible.” [Santiago (MHM1)]
    a decorated tortilla basket sitting on a table
    Figure 6: [Miguel (MHM)]
    cooking bread over an outdoor fire
    Figure 7: “My family is full of wonderful cooks…. My nana makes the best pies, cakes, and homemade ice cream. My father is the greatest at everything. He doesn’t use measuring cups because he’s that good. He also goes fishing with my uncles, who don’t like to buy fish from the store.” [Shasta (FNA)]

    “When I was growing up, my Nana would make a soup from acorn. She would pick acorns, grind them up, and pick the shells out. This process took the longest. Once she had the corn base taken care of, she then would make dumplings. All together the stew would consist of dumplings, “stew meat,” and the acorns. The soup has a very bitter taste. It’s something I had to get used to, just like coffee. Whenever I think of the soup, it reminds me of my Nana.” [Shasta (FNA)]

    a hand sprinkling grated cheese over toasted bread
    Figure 8: “When Good Friday comes, it brings my mother and I together. I’m always at school and playing sports…. She’s always at work, comes home late, and tired.” [Candelaria (FHM)]
    a baking dish filled with capirotada
    Figure 9: “Capirotada.” [Candelaria (FHM)]
    a dish with two pieces of pan dulce (sweet rolls) and a coffee service
    Figure 10: “Pan-dulce is an important part of my Mexican culture. Café de olla is a special blend of coffee with cinnamon and cocoa bean. In my family it is used to spend time with each other, friends, relatives, or to close business agreements with partners. It is not eaten in times of sorrow because of the bright colors.” [Lucas (MHM)]

    Gender Roles

    Food practices were often gendered in the student narratives. Enactment of traditional gender roles, with women primarily responsible for household food, and men valued as professional chefs or in charge of the grill, was the norm in the majority of students’ families (see Figures 11 to 15).

    What role does gender play in who cooks in your family?

    a sewn kitchen decoration
    Figure 11: [Miguel (MHM)]

    “My brother and my dad—they don’t touch the kitchen—they think cooking is too complicated. My dad can’t even warm up a tortilla.” [Candelaria (FHM)]

    a person tending an outdoor grill with food on it
    Figure 12: “In my culture, Hispanic culture, when there’s people who come over to the house…we usually have…a parrillada… Once you start growing up—12, 13, 14—they teach you how to set up the coal, how to start it up, put the spices on the meat, then…. while the guys do the cooking on the grill…the girls begin the chopping…to make the salsa roja and guacamole.” [Santiago (MHM1)]
    an outdoor deep-frying pan filled with hot oil
    Figure 13: “We fry the mojarra (fish) and then we cut little triangular tortillas and fry those as well. We put onions, jalapeños, garlic—we fry all that too.” [Vicente (MHM)]
    people sitting at a table eating food and drinking Diet Coke
    Figure 14: “The tradition is to sit with the entire family and enjoy. The pico de gallo, with the corn tortilla and a cup of Coca-Cola are all essential parts to the meal.” [Vicente (MHM)]
    the back of the head of a mature man sitting at a table
    Figure 15: “My grandpa always sits in the same spot…. I think of him as the head of the family. I guess he is; he started it.” [Miguel (MHM)]

    Where Food Comes From

    Congruent with the current food landscape, most students’ families primarily purchased food from grocery stores and restaurants, including fast food outlets. Some also shopped at farmers’ markets and natural grocers. Many of the students expressed an awareness of where food comes from, and that they valued the knowledge and expertise needed to grow food. Farming and/or gardening was part of family and cultural practices for almost half of the students, but it was generally not a major current food source (see Figures 16 to 20).

    Do you know where the food came from that you ate for lunch today?

    a tree outdoors in blossom with two evergreens and a low building behind it
    Figure 16: [Miguel (MHM)]
    an outdoor plant pot with several dessicated plants in it
    Figure 17: “[At home] we have peaches, apricots, plums, and tomatoes; and my brother started growing tomatoes and chile with special lights inside.” [Sofia (FHM1)]
    a close up of a cow's head and shoulders
    Figure 18: “That’s a cow. My family was getting ready to butcher it for a wedding…. My grandfather can slaughter a cow blind.” [Shasta (FNA)]

    “I kind of bonded with the cow a little bit and so I was a little sad to see him get

    shot in the head….You have to kill it, then you have to clean it, then you have to cut everything up, then you have to dry it so it’s not all bloody. And you have to make sure that the dogs don’t get it. I think I’m a bit traumatized because I wash the organs and I feel their warmth; I can’t bring myself to eat it.” [Shasta (FNA)]

    a backyard with small trees with no leaves on them and some garden paraphernalia
    Figure 19: “This is the backyard of my grandparents’ house. My grandpa grows chiles. A lot of the trees…they’re dead… I don’t know anything about planting fruits or vegetables.” [Miguel (MHM)]

    “My grandpa has three pieces of land (tierras), or we call it in Mexico, el llano. He

    grows beans, he grows sorghum for his cattle, and he grows corn. Lately, these past years there hasn’t been much rain in Mexico. He grows a little bit of beans to eat and a little bit to sell.” [Vicente (MHM)]

    a blurry close-up of some sunflower seeds
    Figure 20: “Peace time—sunny and warm outside, when my mom has just finished watering the garden. After cleaning the patio is the time to rest on the front porch, drinking Coca-Cola and eating sunflower seeds. We are having a nice family conversation about our future…thinking back on my and my parents’ childhoods—the smell of wet dirt out in the breeze.” [Sofia (FHM1)]

    Friction Between Cultural Traditions and Daily Food Practices

    Most of the students articulated their awareness of the friction between traditional and daily food practices. Although all of the students were cognizant of this issue, the Hispanic/Latinx and Native American students described these contradictions most vividly (see Figures 21 and 22).

    How do you decide what to eat each day?

    “Today’s food revolves around convenience, where food as a child was always something that we could all take our time with.” [(Franco (MHN)] “At home my parents [are the influence] because they cook…[if] we don’t like the food in the cafeteria, what should we eat? McDonalds or this place or that place.” [Santiago (MHM1)]

    people sitting at table outdoors eating snacks
    Figure 21: [Emily (FA)]
    a person sitting in the drivers seat of a car with one hand on the steering wheel and the other holding food
    Figure 22: [David (MHN)]

    Commercial Influence

    Commercial influence, especially the rise of corporate control of the global food system, has been cited as a central cause of overweight and correlated chronic disease (see Figures 23 to 27).

    Many traditional dishes include beans, grains, meats, and vegetables, all of which contain vital nutrients that contribute to a healthy diet. Where do you think messages come from that imply that traditional foods are not healthy?

    outdoor photograph of an IHOP (International House of Pancakes) and a Days Inn hotel in the background
    Figure 23: [Santiago (MHM1)]
    a close up of a back of Flamin' Hot Crunchy Cheetos
    Figure 24: [Emily (FA)]
    a close up of a bowl full of multi-colored cereal with milk and a spon
    Figure 25: [Emily (FA)]
    a table strewn with the leftovers and packaging of a fast food meal
    Figure 26: [Arturo (MHM1)]

    “At my friends’ house I could resort to eating junk.” [John (MA)] “When I’m with my friends we’re usually more tempted to go out and get something… When you cook you have to wash dishes.” [Shasta (FNA)]

    close up of dishes sitting in a drying rack
    Figure 27: [Miguel (MHM)]

    Food Security/Food Insecurity and Sharing

    Hunger and food insecurity are prevalent in the lives of many students in New Mexico. When several students candidly discussed the lack of food access that their families faced, none of the other students appeared surprised. Despite this, sharing food with extended family and neighbors is a common practice (see Figures 28 to 30).

    Have you or your friends or family ever gone to bed hungry?

    a panful of food sitting on a grill over an outdoor fire
    Figure 28: “A community will come together and make sure that their families are fed—and make sacrifices. ’Cause it’s really hard to cook at an open fire. Elders do it for family. Cooking is…getting the ingredients and then cooking it, whether it’s a vigorous process or putting something in the microwave.” [Shasta (FNA)]
    a close up of a spoon in a pan full of sautéed pieces of chicken and seasonings
    Figure 29: “After everything has been served, it was a little bit of leftovers that my mom had in one of the pots where we made the chicken fajitas. We don’t throw food away, ’cause we think it’s not right.” [Candelaria (FHM)]
    a person standing in the distance behind a low metal fence
    Figure 30: “My grandma would make a dish for them and send it every day.” [Miguel (MHM)]

    Several students reported that sometimes there was limited food available. John (MA) explained, “Our food stamps were shut down the past month, and so I have just been eating…less and less; school lunch has been my main meal. We had some dried beans, but I didn’t want to bother with [them]. I have been eating very little, but it seems like I always have enough to eat to get by.” Isabella (FHM) said, “Obviously we’re not broke because we still have our house, but it’s like the deadline of our budget, and she [mom] says, ‘We’re having ramen tonight.’ That’s when you know we’re at our limit.”

    Food Practicesand Health

    Although multiple factors have an impact on a healthy diet—food access, food preferences, and culture—several students observed that cooking was a way to control the cost and quality of the food that they ate. In a world in which prepared and packaged foods are available on most street corners, food selection and cooking skills support healthy food practices (see Figures 31 to 33).

    What does “healthy food” mean to you?

    “I wanted to play basketball and I had to have a physical, and they told me that I was pre-diabetic…and my family had to change everything from what I was drinking to what I was eating. We used to have a lot of junk food…sweet bread and chips. Besides being a lot healthier, I feel much better, my self-esteem. I was 230 pounds and I was only 12. It was like a life-changing experience.” [Candelaria (FHM)]

    a bowlful of pineapple pieces witha bottle of Trechas Spicy Powder seasoning
    Figure 31: “My grandma on my mom’s side has diabetes. My mom decided she was going to grow old soon and didn’t want to be like that. We all feel more energized, more awake. It’s kind of weird like the whole diet at my house changed completely.” [Lucas (MHM)]
    a pot full of asparagus
    Figure 32: [Emily (FA)]
    a pair of hands holding a peeled orange
    Figure 33: “My friend holding an orange—she peeled it in one giant peel. I guess I’m not that healthy—’cause I was at her house and I don’t eat fruits and things like that.” [David (MHN)]

    Cookingas a Life Skill

    Cooking may range from making toast to creating a four-course meal. Most of the cooking reported by students during the project was relatively simple, with the exception of the traditional dishes that students photographed and described. If one has basic foods, a sharp knife, a few pots and pans, running water, and a heat source, much is possible (see Figures 34 to 43).

    How do you define “cooking”?

    “We make soups…stuff that you can make fast. Since we’re going to be college students, being able to make something with ease is important.” [(Franco (MHN)] “My friends—everyone can cook a little bit. It’s just a basic need. ’Cause if you can’t cook, what are your options? Eat out—and that takes a lot of money. It’s a life skill.” [David (MHN)]

    left: a sandwich, chips, and a drink between two seats of a car; right; a burrito sitting on a person's leg in a car
    Figures 34/35: “I am required to eat something fast and convenient… I made the burrito.” [Franco (MHN)]

    left: whole unpeeled potatoes; center: cut-up potatoes in a colander; right: cooked potatoes on a plastic plate

    a young person slicing a potato on a plate

    a young person cracking an egg into a bowl in a kitchen

    people sitting a table eating a home-cooked breakfast
    Figures 36-41: “These photos show a family working together to make a meal, me and my sisters… It’s not frozen food that’s heated up. We actually cooked breakfast…. “[When you cook] you appreciate the meal a lot more, the time and effort you put into it. I guess that’s where the phrase, cooking with love, comes from.” [John (MA)]
    close up of bacon in a frying pan
    Figure 42: [Shasta (FNA)]

    “I go shopping and try to make a lot of it and freeze it and warm it up for the rest of the week ‘cause I don’t have time to be cooking every night. So I have just been making soup ‘cause it’s easy and fast—chicken soup, chicken curry, beef curry.” [Shasta (FNA)]

    a fried egg in a frying pan on a stove
    Figure 43: [David (MHN)]

    “When I go to college next year, I don’t want to be shopping at McDonalds. I want to buy my own food and cook it.” [Lucas (MHM)]

    Honoring Family and CulturalTraditions

    Many of the students expressed respect for the food practices of their elders, as well as the desire to preserve their cultural and family heritages by learning how to cook and share traditional foods (see Figures 44 to 47).

    people standing around an outdoor table with many plate of food on it
    Figure 44: “Tradition is that we cook together, eat together, and clean up together.” [Shasta (FNA)]

    Vicente (MHM) observed, “It’s not the caldo de res, the pico de gallo, the corn tortillas, the rice or the seasoning—it’s the presence of the people around you that really make the dish worth the time.” Candelaria (FHM) concurred, “We are united because we continue our traditions…. I plan to share these traditions with other people and my own children in the future.”

    a single piece of chocolate cake sitting on a cake plate
    Figure 45: [Arturo (MHM1)]
    close up of daffodils in the process of drying out
    Figure 46: [Arturo (MHM1)]
    smile on the face of a boy with a table full of brightly colored toys
    Figure 47: [Miguel (MHM)]
    Thank you to the students who generously shared their stories!

    Discussion Questions

    • How might increased access to a variety of foods, including fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, exert positive pressure to enact healthy food practices?
    • How might cooking skills increase food access and counterbalance commercial practices of culinary imperialism?
    • How have processed foods changed cooking and eating patterns?
    • What role do you think that gender plays in who cooks? How has this changed (or not) over the past 100 years?
    • What is healthy food? What is good food?

    Bartis, P. 2002. Folklife and fieldwork: An introduction to field techniques. Library of Congress.

    Collier Jr., J. & Collier, M. 1986. Visual anthropology: Photography as a Research method. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

    Collier, M., Hegde, R., Lee, W. Nakayama, T., Yep, G. 2001. “Dialogue on the Edges: Ferment in communication and culture.” In M. Collier (Ed.) International and Intercultural Communication Annual: Transforming communication about culture: Critical new directions, 24: 219–234. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    FAO. 2006. Food Security (Policy Brief No. 2).

    Healthy People 2020.

    International Food Policy Institute (IFPRI).

    Mak, T.N., Prynne, C.J., Cole, D., Fitt, E., Bates, B., Stephen, A.M. 2013.”Patterns of sociodemographic and food practice characteristics in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in children: results from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2010).” Public Health Nutrition 16(11): 1912–23.

    McGee, H. 1984. On Food and Cooking. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons,.

    Rasmussen, K. 2004. “Places for children—Children’s places.” Childhood, 11(2): 155–173.

    Walters, L.M. 2015. “Through their own eyes: Exploring New Mexico high school students’ perceptions of the influences on their food practices.

    1. The study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of New Mexico. Written active or passive informed consent was obtained from all study participants and/or their parents, as required.
    2. Students’ photographs and quotations are identified by pseudonyms, along with demographic descriptors: F/M (female/male); HN (Hispanic/Latinx from New Mexico); HM (Hispanic/Latinx of Mexican descent); M1 (first generation Mexican immigrant); NA (Native American); A (Anglo).
    3. Walters, Lynn. 2015. “Through Their Own Eyes: Exploring New Mexico High School Students’ Perceptions of the Influences on Their Food Practices.” Communication ETDs, May.

    This page titled 1.4: Creative- Food Practices Photo Essay is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Lynn M. Walters (eCampus Ontario) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.