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    Glossary Entries



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    1-2-3 dough A pastry dough made of one part sugar, two parts fat, and three parts flour, by weight.        
    Absorption The amount of water a flour can take up and hold while being made into a simple dough. Absorption is based on a predetermined standard dough consistency or stiffness; expressed as a percentage of the weight of flour.        
    Active dry yeast A dry, granular form of yeast that must normally be rehydrated before using.        
    Aerobic Requiring oxygen to live and grow; said of some bacteria.        
    Air cell A tiny bubble of air, created by creaming or foaming that assists in leavening a dough or batter.        
    Allergen A substance that triggers an allergic reaction.        
    AH-purpose flour Flour formulated to be slightly weaker than bread flour so it also can be used for pastries.        
    Allumette French for "matchstick"; any puff pastry item made in thin sticks or strips.        
    Almond paste A mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar.        
    Amylase An enzyme in flour that breaks down starches into simple sugars.        
    Anaerobic Requiring an absence of oxygen to live and grow; said of some bacteria.        
    Anaphylaxis A sudden and severe allergic reaction of the immune system.        
    Angel food cake A type of cake made of meringue (egg whites and sugar) and flour.        
    Angel food method A cake-mixing method that involves folding a mixture of flour and sugar into a meringue.        
    Apple charlotte A dessert of apples cut up and baked in a mold lined with bread slices.        
    AP weight As purchased, the weight of an item before trimming.        
    Artisan bread Bread made by a skilled manual worker, usually refers to handmade breads made using traditional methods and with natural ingredients only.        
    Ash The mineral content of flour; expressed as a percentage of the total weight.        
    Autolyse A resting period early in the mixing procedure of yeast doughs during which the flour fully absorbs the water.        
    Baba A type of yeast bread or cake that is soaked in syrup.        
    Babka A type of sweet yeast bread or coffee cake.        
    Baget A ring-shaped lean yeast dough product made from a very stiff dough.        
    Bagged A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped and deposited on the pan or sheet, using a pastry bag.        
    Baked Alaska A dessert consisting of ice cream on a sponge cake base covered with meringue and browned in the oven.        
    Baked custard A custard that is baked undisturbed so it sets into a solid. Baked meringue: Any meringue mixture that is baked until dry.        
    Baker's cheese A soft, unaged cheese used to make pastry fillings, cheesecake, and similar products.        
    Baker's percentage A method of expressing ratios of ingredients in a baking formula in which the weight of each ingredient is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the flour.        
    Baking ammonia A leavening ingredient that releases ammonia gas and carbon dioxide.        
    Baking chocolate A chocolate product in which another fat is substituted for part of the cocoa butter.        
    Baklava A Greek or Middle Eastern dessert made of nuts and phyllo dough and soaked with syrup.        
    Bar A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped into flattened cylinders, baked, and sliced crosswise into individual cookies; also, a cookie made by this method.        
    Barm A thin or batter-like sourdough starter.        
    Batter A semiliquid mixture containing flour or other starch, used for the production of such products as cakes and breads and for coating products to be deep-fried.        
    Baume A unit of measure indicating the specific gravity of a solution often used to indicate sugar concentration.        
    Baumkuchen A cake made by adding one thin layer of batter at a time to a pan and browning lightly under a broiler after each addition, repeating until the cake is the desired thickness.        
    Bavarian cream A light, cold dessert made of gelatin, whipped cream, and custard sauce or fruit.        
    Bavarois French for Bavarian cream.        
    Beignet soufflé: A type of fritter made with eclair paste, which puffs up greatly when fried.        
    Benching An intermediate fermentation and resting period for yeast doughs, after folding and before rounding or pre-shaping.        
    Betty A baked dessert consisting of layers of fruit and cake crumbs.        
    Biga A yeast pre-ferment made as a stiff dough.        
    Biscuit method A mixing method in which the fat is mixed with the dry ingredients before the liquid ingredients are added.        
    Black Forest torte A chocolate sponge layer cake filled with whipped cream and cherries.        
    Blancmange (l) An English pudding made of milk, sugar, and cornstarch. (2) A French dessert made of milk, cream, almonds, and gelatin.        
    Blitz puff pastry A type of pastry mixed like a very flaky pie dough, then rolled and folded like puff pastry.        
    Bloom (1) A whitish coating on chocolate caused by separated cocoa butter. (2) To hydrate gelatin. (3) The relative strength or gelling power of a grade of gelatin.        
    Blown sugar Pulled sugar made into thin-walled, hollow shapes by being blown up like a balloon.        
    Boiled icing Italian meringue used as a cake icing.        
    Bolting The process of sifting flour, primarily to separate the bran.        
    Bombe A type of frozen dessert made in a dome-shaped mold.        
    Boston cream pie Not a pie, but a sponge cake or other yellow cake filled with pastry cream and topped with chocolate fondant or confectioners' sugar.        
    Boulanger The bread baker, who prepares breads and other yeast goods, including such breakfast items as brioche, croissants, and Danish pastry.        
    Boulanger, A. An eighteenth-century Parisian credited with starting the first restaurant.        
    Bran The hard outer covering of kernels of wheat and other grains.        
    Bran flour Flour to which bran flakes have been added.        
    Bread flour Strong flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.        
    Break system A milling system to produce various grades of flour by repeatedly breaking the grains between rollers, and sifting.        
    Brioche Rich yeast dough containing large amounts of eggs and butter; a product made from this dough.        
    Brix A unit of measure indicating the sugar concentration of a solution.        
    Brown sugar Regular granulated sucrose containing impurities that give it a distinctive flavor and color.        
    Buttercream An icing made of butter and/or shortening blended with confectioners' sugar or sugar syrup and, sometimes, other ingredients.        
    Butterfat The fat in dairy products. Also called milk fat.        
    Buttermilk (1) The milky liquid drained off after cream is churned to make butter. Rarely sold. (2) Milk, usually low fat or fat-free, that has been cultured by bacteria to resemble the original buttermilk (definition 1).        
    Cabinet pudding A baked custard containing sponge cake and fruit.        
    Cake flour A fine white flour made from soft wheat.        
    Calorie The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius.        
    Cannoli Fried Italian pastries made in tube shapes, generally with a sweet cream or cheese filling (singular form: cannolo).        
    Caramelization The browning of sugars caused by heat.        
    Caramelize To change sugar into caramel by means of heat.        
    Carbohydrate Any of a group of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, including starches and sugars that supply energy to the body.        
    Careme, Marie-Antoine Important and influential nineteenth-century cook and pastry chef.        
    Carotenoid An orange-yellow pigments present in many plant products, including unbleached flour; responsible for the creamy color of flour.        
    Cassata An Italian-style bombe, usually with three layers of different ice creams, plus a filling of Italian meringue.        
    Cast sugar Sugar boiled to the hard-crack stage and then poured into molds to harden. Also called poured sugar.        
    Celiac disease A reaction to gluten in which the lining of the intestine is damaged.        
    Celsius scale The metric system of temperature measurement, with O"C at the freezing point of water and 100°c at the boiling point of water.        
    Centi- Prefix in the metric system meaning one-hundredth.        
    Challah A rich egg bread often made as a braided loaf.        
    Charlotte (1) A cold dessert made of Bavarian cream or other cream in a special mold, usually lined with ladyfingers or other sponge products. (2) A hot dessert made of cooked fruit and baked in a special mold lined with strips of bread.        
    Charlotte ring A metal ring used as a mold for charlottes and other desserts.        
    Chef de cuisine The head of a kitchen.        
    Chef garde manger Pantry chef.        
    Chemical leavener A leavener such as baking soda, baking powder, or baking ammonia, which releases gases produced by chemical reactions.        
    Chiffon cake A light cake made by the chiffon method.        
    Chiffon method A cake-mixing method that involves the folding of whipped egg whites into a batter made of flour, egg yolks, and oil.        
    Chocolate Any of a number of products made from fermented, roasted, ground cocoa (or cacao) beans. Often with the addition of sugar, flavorings, and other ingredients.        
    Chocolate liquor Unsweetened chocolate, consisting of cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Also called cocoa mass.        
    Chocolate truffle A small ball of chocolate ganache, served as a confection.        
    Cholesterol A fatty substance found in foods derived from animal products and in the human body; a high level of cholesterol has been linked to heart disease.        
    Christmas pudding A dark, heavy steamed pudding made of dried and candied fruits, spices, beef suet, and crumbs.        
    Ciabatta A type of Italian bread made from a very slack dough deposited on pans with minimal shaping.        
    Cleanup stage A stage of yeast dough mixing in which the ingredients become fully incorporated into a dough; so-called because the formed dough "deans up" formerly unmixed ingredients from the mixing bowl.        
    Clear flour A tan-colored wheat flour made from the outer portion of the endosperm.        
    Coagulation The process by which proteins become firm, usually when heated.        
    Coating chocolate A sweetened chocolate similar in appearance to couverture but with other fats substituted for part of the cocoa butter.        
    Cobbler A fruit dessert similar to a pie, but without a bottom crust.        
    Cocoa The dry powder that remains after cocoa butter is pressed out of chocolate liquor.        
    Cocoa bean Seed of the cacao tree. Fermented, roasted, and ground to make cocoa and chocolate products.        
    Cocoa butter A white or yellowish fat found in natural chocolate.        
    Cocoa mass Unsweetened chocolate, consisting of cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Also called chocolate liquor.        
    Cold charlotte A dessert consisting of Bavarian cream made in a mold lined with a sponge-cake product.        
    Common meringue Egg whites and sugar whipped to a foam. Also called French meringue.        
    Complex presentation A dessert plating style consisting of an arrangement of two or more desserts plus sauces and garnishes.        
    Complex sugar A large sugar molecule containing at least 12 carbon atoms. Sucrose or table sugar is a complex sugar. See also Simple sugar.        
    Compote Cooked fruit served in its cooking liquid, usually a sugar syrup.        
    Compressed yeast Live, moist yeast, made into dense cakes. Also called Fresh yeast.        
    Conching A step in the manufacturing of chocolate, the purpose of which is to create a fine, smooth texture.        
    Condensed milk Heavily sweetened milk that has had 60% of the water content removed.        
    Confectioners' chocolate See Couverture.        
    Confectioners' sugar Sucrose ground to a fine powder and mixed with a little cornstarch to prevent caking.        
    Confiseur A confectioner, or candy maker.        
    Contact method A decorating technique in which the tip of a paper cone of icing stays in contact with the decorated surface.        
    Contaminated Containing a harmful substance not originally present in the food.        
    Cooked fruit method A method for making pie fillings in which the fruit is cooked and thickened before being placed in the piecrust.        
    Cooked juice method A method for making pie fillings in which the fruit juices are cooked, thickened, and mixed with the fruit.        
    Cookie North American name for a small, flat, baked treat, usually containing fat, flour, eggs, and sugar. Known in England and other Englishspeaking countries as "biscuit."        
    Cornstarch pudding A sweetened liquid, usually milk and flavorings, boiled with cornstarch to thicken it.        
    Corn syrup A syrup made from corn, consisting mostly of glucose.        
    Corrective action In the HACCP system, a procedure that must be followed whenever a critical limit is not met.        
    Coulis A sweetened fruit puree, used as a sauce.        
    Coupe A dessert consisting of one or two scoops of ice cream or sherbet placed in a dish or glass and topped with any of a number of syrups, fruits, toppings, and garnishes; a sundae.        
    Couverture Natural, sweet chocolate containing no added fats other than natural cocoa butter; used for dipping, molding, coating, and similar purposes. Also called Confectioners chocolate.        
    Cracked wheat A type of wheat meal in which the grains are broken into coarse pieces.        
    Cream cheese A soft, fresh cheese with a high milk fat content. Cream pie: An unbaked pie containing a pastry cream-type filling.        
    Cream pudding A boiled pudding made of milk, sugar, eggs, and starch.        
    Creaming The process of beating fat and sugar together to blend them uniformly and to incorporate air.        
    Creaming method A mixing method that begins with the blending of fat and sugar; used for cakes, cookies, and similar items.        
    Crème anglaise A light vanilla-flavored custard sauce made of milk, sugar, and egg yolks.        
    Crème brulee French for ''burnt cream"; a rich custard with a brittle top crust of caramelized sugar.        
    Crème caramel A custard baked in a mold lined with caramelized sugar, then unmolded.        
    Crème chantilly Sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla.        
    Crème Chiboust A cream filling made of pastry cream, gelatin, meringue, and flavorings.        
    Crème fraiche A slightly aged, cultured heavy cream with a slightly tangy flavor.        
    Crémeux A type of cream or pudding consisting of crème anglaise plus one or more thickeners or binders, such as chocolate, gelatin, or butter.        
    Crepe A very thin French pancake, often served rolled around a filling.        
    Crepes Suzette French pancakes served in a sweet sauce flavored with orange.        
    Crisp (1) A baked fruit dessert with a streusel topping. (2) A confection or garnish consisting of a very thin slice of fruit that has been dried.        
    Critical control point (CCP) An action that can be taken to eliminate or minimize a food safety hazard.        
    Croissant A flaky, buttery yeast roll shaped like a crescent and made from a rolled-in dough.        
    Cross-contamination The transfer of pathogens to food from another food or from work surfaces or equipment.        
    Crumb The interior of a baked item, distinct from the crust. Crumb crust: A piecrust made of cookie crumbs, butter, and sugar.        
    Crystallize To form crystals, as in the case of dissolved sugar.        
    Cuisinier A cook; the head of a kitchen.        
    Custard A liquid thickened or set by the coagulation of egg protein.        
    Dark chocolate Sweetened chocolate that consists of chocolate liquor and sugar.        
    Dark couverture Couverture consisting of chocolate liquor and sugar; contains no milk solids.        
    Deci- Prefix in the metric system meaning one-tenth.        
    Decor Small food items whose primary purpose is decoration.        
    Decorateur A pastry chef who specializes or is skilled in decorative work, such as showpieces, sugar work, and fancy cakes.        
    Degree Celsius Unit of measure of temperature in the metric system. One degree Celsius is 1/100 of the temperature range between the freezing point and the boiling point of water.        
    Demerara sugar A type of crystalline brown sucrose.        
    Dessert syrup A flavored sugar syrup used to flavor and moisten cakes and other desserts.        
    Devil's food cake A chocolate cake made with a high percentage of baking soda, which gives the cake a reddish color.        
    Diastase Various enzymes found in flour and in diastatic malt that convert starch into sugar.        
    Disaccharide A complex or double sugar, such as sucrose.        
    Dobos torte A Hungarian cake made of seven thin layers, filled with chocolate buttercream, and topped with caramelized sugar.        
    Docking Piercing or perforating pastry dough before baking in order to allow steam to escape and to avoid blistering.        
    Double-acting baking powder Baking powder that releases some of its gases when it is mixed with water and the remaining gases when it is heated.        
    Double-panning Placing a baking sheet or pan on or in a second pan to prevent scorching the bottom of the product being baked.        
    Dough conditioner Any of a variety of ingredients added by the baker during production of yeast products to improve gluten development, aid yeast fermentation, and delay staling. Also called dough improver.        
    Dough relaxation A period of rest in the production of yeast dough during which gluten strands become adjusted to their new length and become less tight.        
    Dough strength An indication of the texture and gluten development of a yeast dough; a combination of elasticity, tenacity, and extensibility.        
    Drained weight The weight of solid canned fruit after draining off the juice.        
    Dredge To sprinkle or coat thoroughly with sugar or another dry powder.        
    Dried whole milk A powdered form of whole milk with the water content removed.        
    Drop batter A batter that is too thick to pour but will drop from a spoon in lumps.        
    Dropped A cookie makeup method in which portions of dough are measured with a scoop or spoon and dropped onto a baking pan.        
    Drop-string method A decorating technique in which the tip of a paper cone of icing stays above the decorated surface and the icing drops as a string onto the surface. Also used to suspend strings of icing between two points.        
    Durum flour Flour made from durum wheat, a high-gluten wheat, and
    used primarily to make spaghetti and other dried pasta.
    Dutch process cocoa or dutched cocoa Cocoa processed with an alkali to reduce its acidity.        
    Eclair A cylindrical piece of baked eclair paste with a pastry cream filling.        
    Eclair paste A paste or dough made of boiling water or milk, butter, flour, and eggs; used to make eclairs, cream puffs, and similar products.        
    Egg-foam cake A cake leavened primarily by whipped eggs; it usually has a low percentage of fat.        
    Elasticity The ability of a dough to spring back when it is stretched. Empty calorie: A food that provides few nutrients per calorie.        
    Emulsified shortening Shortening containing emulsifiers and used for high-ratio cakes.        
    Emulsion A uniform mixture of two or more normally unmixable substances. Endosperm: The starchy inner portion of grain kernels.        
    English muffin A yeast dough product made in the shape of a disk and cooked on a griddle.        
    Enriched flour Flour to which vitamins and minerals are added to compensate for the nutrients lost when the bran and germ are removed.        
    EP weight Edible portion; the weight of an item after trimming.        
    Escoffier, Georges August Most important chef of late nineteenth and early twentieth century; organized cooking principles and kitchen hierarchy.        
    Evaporated milk Milk, either whole or skim that has had 60% of the water removed.        
    Extensibility The ability of a dough to be stretched.        
    Extract A flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils or other substances dissolved in alcohol.        
    Extraction The portion of the grain kernel separated into a particular grade of flour. Usually expressed as a percentage.        
    Facultative Able to live and grow with or without the presence of oxygen; said of some bacteria.        
    Fat Any of a group of compounds consisting of chains of fatty acids that supply energy to the body in a concentrated form.        
    Fermentation The process by which yeast changes carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.        
    Fiber A type of complex carbohydrate that is not absorbed by the body but is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system.        
    Final development stage The stage of yeast dough mixing in which gluten becomes smooth and elastic.        
    Flaky piecrust A piecrust that has a flaky texture due to layers of fat sandwiched between layers of dough.        
    Flaky pie dough A pie dough that has a flaky texture when baked. See
    Flaky piecrust.
    Flat icing A simple icing made of confectioners' sugar and water, usually used for Danish pastries and sweet rolls.        
    Flooding Covering a plate, or a portion of a plate, with sauce.        
    Flour-batter method A cake-mixing method in which the flour is first mixed with the fat.        
    Flow of food The path food travels in a food service operation, from receiving to serving.        
    Foaming The process of whipping eggs, with or without sugar, to incorporate air.        
    Focaccia A flat Italian bread similar to a thick pizza dough.        
    Fondant A type of icing made of boiled sugar syrup that is agitated so it crystallizes into a mass of extremely small white crystals.        
    Food Danger Zone The temperature range of 40° to l40°F (4.5 to 60°C), in which bacteria grow rapidly.        
    Food intolerance A non-allergic reaction to a food that may be characterized by any of a variety of undesirable symptoms.        
    Formula A set of ingredients and quantities and, usually, instructions for preparing a bakery product; a baker's recipe.        
    Fortified nonfat or low-fat milk Milk that has had all or part of the fat removed and that contains added substances, such as vitamins A and D that increase its nutritional value.        
    Fougasse A regional French bread made in the shape of a trellis or ladder.        
    Four-fold A technique used to increase the number of layers in puff pastry or Danish pastry by folding the dough in fourths.        
    Frangipane A type of almond-flavored cream.        
    French bread Any of a variety of crisp-crusted yeast breads usually consisting only of flour, water, yeast, and salt.        
    French doughnut A fried pastry made of choux paste.        
    French meringue Egg whites and sugar whipped to a foam; also called common meringue.        
    French pastry Any of a variety of small fancy cakes and other pastries, usually in single-portion sizes.        
    French-style ice cream Ice cream containing egg yolks.        
    Fresh yeast See Compressed yeast.        
    Fritter A deep-fried item made of or coated with a batter or dough.        
    Frozen mousse A still-frozen dessert containing whipped cream.        
    Frozen soufflé A frozen mousse served in a soufflé dish or ramekin so that it resembles a baked soufflé.        
    Frozen yogurt A frozen dessert similar to ice cream but made with yogurt instead of or in addition to milk.        
    Fruitcake A loaf cake containing a high percentage of dried and candled fruits and, usually, nuts.        
    Fruit gratin A dessert consisting of fruit plus a topping, browned under a broiler.        
    Fruit pie A baked single- or double-crust pie with a fruit filling.        
    Fruit torte A layer cake topped with a decorative arrangement of fruit.        
    Fungus A class of organisms that includes yeasts, molds, and mushrooms.        
    Fusion cuisine The use of techniques and ingredients from more than one regional cuisine in a single dish.        
    Ganache A rich cream made of sweet chocolate and heavy cream.        
    Garnish An edible item added to another food as a decoration or accompaniment.        
    Gateau French word for "cake."        
    Gateau St-Honore A pastry consisting of a base made of short pastry and pate a choux and a cream filling, usually crème Chiboust or crème diplomat.        
    Gaufre French for "waffle."        
    Gelatin A water-soluble protein extracted from animal tissue; used as a jelling agent.        
    Gelatinization The process by which starch granules absorb water and
    swell in size.
    Gelato Italian ice cream.        
    Gelee (1) A liquid thickened with gelatin. (2) Any other kind of
    jelly, especially one set with pectin.
    Genoise A sponge cake made by whipping whole eggs with sugar and
    folding in flour and, sometimes, melted butter.
    Germ The plant embryo portion of a grain kernel.        
    Gladi (l) Glazed; coated with icing; (2) frozen.        
    Glacier A chef whose specialty is ice cream.        
    Glace (1) n. A shiny coating, such as a syrup, applied to a food. (2) v. To make a food shiny or glossy by coating it with a glaze or by browning it under a broiler or in a hot oven.        
    Gtiadin A protein in wheat flour that combines with another protein, glutenin, to form gluten.        
    Glucose A simple sugar available in the form of a clear, colorless, tasteless syrup.        
    Gluten An elastic substance formed from proteins present in wheat flours that gives structure and strength to baked goods.        
    Glutenin See Gliadin.        
    Gluten window A thin membrane of yeast dough made in order to test gluten development.        
    Gram The basic unit of weight in the metric system; equal to about onethirtieth of an ounce.        
    Granita Italian equivalent of the French term Granite.        
    Granite A coarse, crystalline frozen dessert made of water, sugar, and fruit juice or another flavoring.        
    Granulated sugar Sucrose in a fine crystalline form.        
    Gum paste A type of sugar paste or pastillage made with vegetable gum.        
    HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points. HACCP is a food safety system of self-inspection designed to highlight hazardous foods and to ensure proper food handling, by identifying, monitoring, and controlling dangers of food contamination.        
    Half-and-half A kind of high-fat milk or low-fat cream containing 10 to 18% milk fat.        
    Hard meringue A meringue baked until crisp.        
    Hard sauce A flavored mixture of confectioners' sugar and butter; often served with steamed puddings.        
    Hard wheat Wheat high in protein.        
    Hazard A potentially dangerous food condition caused by contamination, growth of pathogens, survival of pathogens, or presence of toxins.        
    Head baker The professional in charge of staff and production in a bakery.        
    Hearth bread A bread baked directly on the bottom of the oven, not in a pan.        
    Heavy pack A type of canned fruit or vegetable with very little added water or juice.        
    High-fat cake A cake with a high percentage of fat; distinguished from a sponge or egg-foam cake.        
    High-ratio method See Two-stage method.        
    High-ratio (1) Term referring to cakes and cake formulas mixed by a special method and containing more sugar than flour. (2) The mixing method used for these cakes. {3) Term referring to certain specially formulated ingredients used in these cakes, such as shortening.        
    Homogenized milk Milk processed so the cream does not separate out.        
    Hot milk and butter sponge A sponge cake batter in which a mixture of warm milk and melted butter is mixed into the batter.        
    Hydration The process of absorbing water.        
    Hydrogenation A process that converts liquid oils to solid fats (shortenings) by chemically bonding hydrogen to the fat molecules.        
    Ice cream A churn-frozen mixture of milk, cream, sugar, flavorings, and, sometimes, eggs.        
    Ice milk A frozen dessert similar to ice cream, but with a lower fat content.        
    Icebox A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped into cylinders, refrigerated until firm, and then sliced.        
    Ice A frozen dessert made of water, sugar, and fruit juice.        
    Icing comb A plastic triangle with toothed or serrated edges; used for texturing icings.        
    Icing screen A screen on which cakes a reset when iced or glazed, allowing excess to run off.        
    Improved mix A yeast dough mixing technique that combines a medium mixing period with a medium fermentation period.        
    Initial development stage The first part of the development stage of mixing yeast doughs, in which the dough still appears rough and under-mixed.        
    Instant dry yeast A dry, granular yeast product that does not require hydration before being added to doughs.        
    Instant starch A starch that thickens a liquid without cooking because it has been precooked.        
    Intensive mix A yeast dough mixing technique that combines a long mixing period with a short fermentation period.        
    Inversion A chemical process in which a double sugar splits into two simple sugars,        
    Invert sugar A mixture of two simple sugars, dextrose and sucralose, resulting from the breakdown of sucrose.        
    Isomalt A compound derived from sucrose, used as a dietary sugar substitute and as an alternative to sugar in decorative sugar work.        
    Italian meringue A meringue made by whipping a boiling syrup into egg whites.        
    Jalebi A type of Indian dessert made of deep-fried batter soaked in syrup.        
    Japona A baked meringue flavored with nuts.        
    Kernel paste A nut paste, similar to almond paste, made of apricot kernels and sugar.        
    Kilo- Prefix in the metric system meaning one thousand.        
    Kirsch A clear alcoholic beverage distilled from cherries.        
    Kirsch torte A torte made of genoise, meringue disks, and buttercream, and flavored with kirsch.        
    Kugehopf A type of rich, sweet bread or coffee cake, usually made in a tube-type pan.        
    Lactobacilli A group of bacteria primarily responsible for producing the acidity in sourdough starters.        
    lacto-ovo-vegetarian A vegetarian diet that allows dairy products and eggs.        
    lactose A form of sugar naturally present in milk.        
    Lacto-vegetarian A vegetarian diet that allows milk and other dairy products.        
    Ladyfinger A small, dry, finger-shaped sponge cake or cookie.        
    Lag phase A period after bacteria have been introduced to a new environment and before they begin to grow and reproduce.        
    Laminated dough A dough consisting of many alternating layers of dough and butter or other fat.        
    Langue de chat A thin, crisp cookie. The French name means "cat's tongue," referring to the shape of the cookie.        
    Lattice crust A top crust for a pie made of strips of pastry in a crisscross pattern.        
    Lean dough A dough low in fat and sugar.        
    Leavening The production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.        
    Lecithin An emulsifier usually derived from soybeans. Leva in: Sourdough starter.        
    Levain-levure French for yeast pre-ferment.        
    Levure Commercial yeast.        
    Light cream Cream with a fat content of 18 to 30%.        
    Linzertorte A tart made of raspberry jam and a short dough containing nuts and spices.        
    Lipid Any of a group of compounds containing fats and cholesterol.        
    Liquid levain A thin or batter-like sourdough starter.        
    Liter The basic unit of volume in the metric system; equal to slightly more than one quart.        
    Long-fermentation dough A yeast dough that requires a long fermentation period.        
    Low-fat milk Milk with a fat content of 0.5 to 2%.        
    Macaron French spelling for macaroon, usually referring to a particular style of almond-paste cookie.        
    Macaroon A cookie made of eggs (usually whites) and almond powder, almond paste, or coconut.        
    Maillard reaction A chemical reaction that causes the browning of proteins and sugars together when subjected to heat.        
    Malt syrup A type of syrup containing maltose sugar, extracted from sprouted barley.        
    Marble To partly mix two colors of cake batter or icing so the colors are in decorative swirls.        
    Margarine An artificial butter product made of hydrogenated fats and flavorings.        
    Marron French for "chestnut."        
    Marshmallow A light confection, icing, or filling made of meringue and gelatin (or other stabilizers).        
    Marshmallow icing Boiled icing with the addition of gelatin.        
    Marzipan A paste or confection made of almonds and sugar and often used for decorative work.        
    Mature (dough) The ideal stage of development for a yeast dough.        
    Mature (fruit) Fruit that has completed its development and is physiologically capable of continuing the ripening process, even after removal from the plant.        
    Maza An early type of bread; cakes of grain paste baked by the ancient Greeks.        
    Meal Coarsely ground grain.        
    Mealy piecrust A piecrust in which the fat has been mixed in thoroughly enough so the dough does not have a flaky texture.        
    Mealy pie dough A pie dough that has a mealy texture when baked. See Mealy piecrust.        
    Melba sauce A sweet sauce made of pureed raspberries and, sometimes, red currants.        
    Meringue A thick, white foam made of whipped egg whites and sugar.        
    Meringue Chantilly Baked meringue filled with whipped cream.        
    Meringue glacee Baked meringue filled with ice cream.        
    Heter The basic unit of length in the metric system; slightly longer than 1 yard. Metric system: A measurement system based entirely on decimals.        
    Microorganism A life form, such as bacteria, too small to be seen without a microscope.        
    Milk chocolate Sweetened chocolate containing milk solids.        
    Milk chocolate couverture Couverture consisting of chocolate liquor, sugar, and milk solids.        
    Milk fat The fat content of milk; also called butterfat.        
    Millefeuille French term for napoleon; literally, "thousand leaves." Also used for various layered desserts.        
    Milli- Prefix in the metric system meaning one-thousandth.        
    Mineral An inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential to nutrition.        
    Mixed fermentation A type of yeast dough fermentation utilizing both a pre-ferment or sour starter and a commercial yeast.        
    Modeling chocolate A thick paste made of chocolate and glucose that can be molded by hand into decorative shapes.        
    Modified straight dough method A mixing method similar to the straight dough method, except the fat and sugar are mixed together first to ensure uniform distribution. Used for rich doughs.        
    Molasses A heavy brown syrup made from sugarcane.        
    Molded A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped into cylinders, cut into equal portions, and shaped as desired.        
    Monosaccharide A simple or single sugar such as glucose and fructose. Monounsaturated fat: A type of fat, normally liquid at room temperature, that contains one double bond in its carbon chain.        
    Mousse A soft or creamy dessert made light by the addition of whipped cream, egg whites, or both.        
    Muffin method A mixing method in which the mixed dry ingredients are combined with the mixed liquid ingredients.        
    Napoleon A dessert made of layers of puff pastry filled with pastry cream.        
    Natural sour See Sourdough starter.        
    Natural starter See Sourdough starter.        
    Net weight The weight of the total contents of a can or package.        
    Nonfat milk Milk with all the fat removed.        
    Nonfat dried milk Fat-free milk with all the moisture removed.        
    No-time dough A bread dough made with a large quantity of yeast and given no fermentation time, except for a short rest after mixing.        
    Nougatine A mixture of caramelized sugar and almonds or other nuts, used in decorative work and as a confection and flavoring.        
    Nouvelle cuisine Important cooking style of the 1960s and 1970s, known for lighter flavors and elaborate plating styles.        
    Nutrient A substance essential for the functioning or growth of an organism.        
    Nutrient density The quantity of nutrients per calorie. Oil: A liquid fat.        
    Old dough A dough that is over fermented.        
    One-stage method (l) a cookie-mixing method in which all ingredients are added to the bowl at once. (2) A cake-mixing method in which all the ingredients, including high-ratio liquid shortening, are mixed together at once.        
    Opera cake A layer cake made of thin sponge layers, coffee-flavored buttercream, and chocolate ganache.        
    Opson In ancient Greece, any food eaten with bread.        
    Osmotolerant yeast A type of yeast that can remain active even in a high concentration of sugar. Used for sweet doughs.        
    Outlining Drawing shapes on a plate with chocolate or a thick sauce prior to filling in the spaces in those shapes with one or more sauces,        
    Oven spring The rapid rise of yeast goods in the oven due to the production and expansion of trapped gases caused by the oven heat.        
    Overrun The increase in volume of ice cream or frozen desserts caused by
    the incorporation of air while freezing.
    Ova-vegetarian Referring to a vegetarian diet that allows eggs.        
    Oxidation The process that occurs when oxygen reacts with other compounds or elements. In the bakeshop, it usually refers to oxidation of components of flour during mixing.        
    Pain d'epice French for "spice bread." A type of
    Pain de campagne French country-style bread.        
    Palmier A small pastry or petit four sec made of rolled, sugared puff pastry cut into slices and baked.        
    Panettone An Italian sweet bread made in a large [oaf, generally containing dried and candied fruits.        
    Panna cotta An Italian pudding made of cream, gelatin, and flavorings; literally, "cooked cream."        
    Paper cone A tool made of parchment paper formed into a cone and filled with icing, sauce, or other semi-liquid. Used for decorative work.        
    Parasite An organism that can survive only by living on, with, or inside another organism,        
    Parfait (1) A type of sundae served in a tall, thin glass. {2) A still-frozen dessert made of egg yolks, syrup, and heavy cream.        
    Pads-Brest A dessert consisting of a ring of baked eclair paste filled with cream.        
    Pasteurize To heat-treat substances, such as milk, to kill bacteria that might cause disease or spoilage.        
    Pastillage A sugar paste used for decorative work, which becomes very hard when dry.        
    Pastry cream A thick custard sauce containing eggs and starch. Pastry flour: A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.        
    Pastry method A mixing method in which the fat is mixed with the dry
    ingredients before the liquid ingredients are added. Also called Biscuit method.
    Pate a choux Eclair paste.        
    Pate brisee A type of rich pastry dough used primarily for tarts.        
    Pate fermentee Fermented dough, used as a starter for yeast breads.        
    Pate feuillete French name for puff pastry.        
    Pate sabtee A rich, crumbly pastry dough high in fat. Also called short
    Pate sucree A type of pastry dough similar to pate brisee but higher in sugar.        
    Patent flour A fine grade of wheat flour milled from the inner portions of the kernel.        
    Pathogen A disease-causing microorganism.        
    Patissier A pastry chef.        
    Peasant tart A baked tart with a custard filling containing prunes.        
    Pectin A soluble plant fiber, used primarily as a jelling agent for fruit preserves and jams.        
    Peel A flat wooden shovel used to place hearth breads in an oven and to remove them.        
    Pentosan A category of carbohydrate gums present in wheat flour and having strong water absorption capability.        
    Petit four A delicate cake, pastry, cookie, or confection small enough to be eaten in one or two bites.        
    Petit four glace An iced or cream-filled petit four.        
    Petit four sec An un-iced or unfilled petit four (sec means "dry"), such as a small butter cookie or palmier.        
    pH A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.        
    Philadelphia-style ice cream Ice cream containing no eggs.        
    Phyllo dough A paper-thin dough or pastry used to make strudels and various Middle Eastern and Greek desserts. Also spelled fiio or filo.        
    Pickup stage The first stage of yeast dough mixing, in which the loose dry ingredients are gradually picked up and incorporated into the developing dough.        
    Piping jelly A transparent, sweet jelly used for decorating cakes.        
    Pithiviers A cake made of puff pastry filled with almond cream.        
    Plant toxin Any poison naturally present in plants.        
    Poissonier The station chef in charge of fish preparation.        
    Polyunsaturated fat A type of fat, normally liquid at room temperature that contains more than one double bond in its carbon chain.        
    Poolish A thin yeast starter made with equal parts flour and water, plus commercial yeast.        
    Pot de crème A rich baked custard.        
    Pound cake (1) A cake made of equal weights of flour, butter, sugar, and eggs; (2) any cake resembling this.        
    Pour batter A batter thin or liquid enough to pour. See also Drop batter. Poured fondant: See Fondant.        
    Poured sugar Sugar boiled to the hard-crack stage and then poured into molds to harden. Also called cast sugar.        
    Praline A confection or flavoring made of nuts and caramelized sugar.        
    Pre-ferment A fermented dough or batter used to provide leavening for a larger batch of dough.        
    Press A scaled piece of dough divided into small, equal units in a dough divider.        
    Profiterole A small puff made of eclair paste. Often filled with ice cream and served with chocolate sauce.        
    Proofing Fermenting made-up yeast products to increase their volume and lighten their texture before baking.        
    Protein Any of a group of nutrients essential for growth, building body tissue, and basic body functions, and that can also be used for energy if the diet does not contain enough carbohydrates and fats.        
    Puff pastry A very light, flaky pastry made from a rolled-in dough and leavened by steam.        
    Pulled sugar Sugar boiled to the hard-crack stage, allowed to harden slightly, then pulled or stretched until it develops a pearly sheen.        
    Pullman loaf A long, rectangular loaf of bread,        
    Pumpernickel flour A coarse, flaky meal made from whole rye grains.        
    Punching A method of expelling gases from fermented dough.        
    Puree A food made into a smooth pulp, usually by being ground or forced
    through a sieve.
    Quenelle A small oval portion of food.        
    Recipe A set of instructions, including ingredients and quantities, for preparing a certain dish. See also Formula.        
    Regular shortening Any basic shortening without emulsifiers, used for creaming methods and for icings.        
    Retarder-proofer An automated, timer-controlled combination of retarder/freezer and proofer, used for holding and proofing yeast products.        
    Retarding Refrigerating a yeast dough to slow its fermentation.        
    Reversed puff pastry A type of puff pastry made with the dough enclosed between layers of butter.        
    Ribbon sponge A thin sponge cake layer with a decorative design made of stencil paste.        
    Rice conde A thick, molded rice pudding, usually topped with fruit.        
    Rice imperatrice A rich rice pudding containing whipped cream, candied fruits, and gelatin.        
    Rich dough A dough high in fat, sugar, and/or eggs.        
    Ripe (fruit) Fruit that is at its peak of texture, flavor, and sweetness, and ready to be consumed.        
    Rotted A cookie makeup method in which the dough is rolled out into a sheet and cut into shapes with cookie cutters.        
    Rolled fondant A dough-like sugar product with the texture of a stiff dough. Rolled into thin sheets and used to cover cakes.        
    Rolled-in dough Dough in which a fat has been incorporated in many layers using a rolling and folding procedure.        
    Roller milting A process of milling wheat into flour that involves repeatedly cracking and sifting the grain.        
    Rotisseur Roast cook or meat cook.        
    Rounding A method of molding a piece of dough into a round ball with a smooth surface or skin.        
    Royal icing A form of icing made of confectioners' sugar and egg whites; used for decorating.        
    Rye blend A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour. Rye flour: Rye grain milled into a flour.        
    Rye meal Coarse rye flour,        
    Sabayon A foamy dessert or sauce made of egg yolks whipped with wine or liqueur.        
    Sablage See Sanding method.        
    Sachertorte A rich chocolate cake from Vienna.        
    Sacristain A small pastry made of a twisted strip of puff paste coated with nuts and sugar.        
    Sanding method A pastry- and cookie-mixing method involving blending the fat with the dry ingredients and then adding in egg.        
    Saturated fat A fat that is normally solid at room temperature.        
    Saucier The station chef who prepares sauces and stews and sautés foods to order.        
    Savarin A type of yeast bread or cake soaked in syrup. Scaling: Weighing, usual(y ingredients, doughs, or batters. Scone: A type of biscuit or biscuit-like bread.        
    Scone flour A mixture of flour and baking powder used when very small quantities of baking powder are needed.        
    Seeding A technique for tempering chocolate by adding grated tempered chocolate to melted chocolate to cool it.        
    Self-rising flour White flour to which baking powder and, sometimes, salt has been added.        
    Sfogliatelte A southern Italian flaky turnover pastry with a sweet cheese filling.        
    Sheet A cookie makeup method in which the dough is baked in sheets and then cut into portions.        
    Sherbet A frozen dessert made of water, sugar, fruit juice, and, sometimes, milk or cream.        
    Short Having a high fat content, which makes the product (such as a cookie or pastry) very crumbly and tender.        
    Shortbread A crisp cookie made of butter, sugar, and flour.        
    Short dough A pastry dough, similar to a basic cookie dough, made of flour, sugar, and fat. See also Short.        
    Shortening (1) Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands. (2) A white, tasteless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep-frying.        
    Short-fermentation straight dough A yeast dough, usually with a high percentage of yeast, that is fermented for only a short time before being made up and baked.        
    Short mix A yeast dough mixing technique combining a short mixing period with long fermentation.        
    Simple fold One part of the procedure for making Danish and croissant dough, which requires folding the dough in thirds. Also called three-fold.        
    Simple presentation A style of plating a dessert consisting of a portion of one dessert plus optional sauces and garnishes.        
    Simple sugar A sugar with the simplest or smallest possible molecule, containing 6 carbon atoms. Glucose is a simple sugar.        
    Simple syrup A syrup consisting of sucrose and water in varying proportions.        
    Single-acting baking powder Baking powder that releases gases as soon as it is mixed with water.
    Skim milk Milk with all the fat removed.        
    Sodium bicarbonate Baking soda; a chemical that releases carbon dioxide gas when combined with an acid.        
    Soft meringue The type of meringue traditionally used for pie toppings; usually with a tow percentage of sugar.        
    Soft pie A single-crust pie with a custard-type filling-that is, a filling that sets or coagulates due to its egg content.        
    Soft wheat Wheat low in protein.        
    Solid pack A type of canned fruit or vegetable with no water added.        
    Sorbet French for "sherbet."        
    Sorbetto Italian for "sherbet."        
    Scuffle (1) A baked dish containing whipped egg whites, which cause the dish to rise during baking. (2) A still-frozen dessert made in a scuffle dish so it resembles a baked scuffle.        
    Sour Sourdough starter.        
    Sour cream A cream, usually with about 18% milk fat, that has been fermented by bacteria until thick.        
    Sourdough A dough leavened by a sourdough starter.        
    Sourdough starter A dough or batter that contains wild yeasts and bacteria, has a noticeable acidity as a result of fermentation by these organisms, and is used to leaven other doughs.        
    Sous chef The station chef who assists the executive chef and is directly in charge of the cooking during production.        
    Sponge A batter or dough of yeast, flour, and water that is allowed to ferment and is then mixed with more flour and other ingredients to make a bread dough.        
    Sponge cake A type of cake made by whipping eggs and sugar to a foam, then folding in flour.        
    Sponge method A cake- and cookie-mixing method based on whipped eggs and sugar.        
    Sponge roll See Swiss roll.        
    Spread The tendency of a cookie to expand and flatten out when baked.        
    Spun sugar Boiled sugar made into long, thin threads by dipping wires into the sugar syrup and waving them so the sugar falls off in fine streams.        
    Staling The change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.        
    Standardized formula A set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a certain baked item.        
    Starch retrogradation A chemical change of starch molecules that is responsible for staling.        
    Stencil A pattern or design cut from plastic or cardboard, used for depositing batter for thin cookies made in decorative shapes.        
    Stencil paste A type of thin cookie or wafer dough used to make cookies in decorative shapes; also used to make decorative patterns in ribbon sponge.        
    St. Honore (1) A dessert made of a ring of cream puffs set on a short dough base and filled with a type of pastry cream; (2) the cream used to fill this dessert, made of pastry cream and whipped egg whites.        
    Stirred custard A custard stirred while it is cooked so it thickens but does not set.        
    Stollen A type of sweet yeast bread with fruit.        
    Straight dough method A mixing method for yeast goods in which all ingredients are mixed together at once.        
    Straight flour Flour made from the entire wheat kernel minus the bran and germ.        
    Stream The portion of flour that is separated in any one of the stages in the roller-milling of grain.        
    Streusel A crumbly topping for baked goods, consisting of fat, sugar, and flour rubbed together.        
    String work The production of decorative icing designs using a paper cone; see drop-string method.        
    Strong flour Flour with a high protein content.        
    Strudel A baked item consisting of a filling rolled up in a sheet of strudel dough or phyllo dough.        
    Strudel dough A type of dough that is stretched until paper-thin. Sucralose: A type of synthetic sweetener derived from sucrose.        
    Sucrose The chemical name for regular granulated sugar and confectioners' sugar.        
    Sugar cage A lacy dome of hard or caramelized sugar.        
    Sundae A dessert consisting of ice cream in a dish, with various sauces and toppings.        
    Swiss meringue Egg whites and sugar warmed, usually over hot water, and then whipped to a foam.        
    Swiss roll A thin sponge cake layer spread with a filling and rolled up.        
    Syrup One or more types of sugar dissolved in water, often with small amounts of other compounds or impurities that give the syrup flavor.        
    Syrup pack A type of canned fruit containing sugar syrup.        
    Tablage A technique for tempering chocolate by cooling it on a marble slab. Tart: A flat, baked item consisting of a pastry and a sweet or savory topping or filling; similar to a pie but usually thinner.        
    Tarte Tatin An upside-down apple tart.        
    Tempering The process of melting and cooling chocolate to a specific temperature to prepare it for dipping, coating, or molding.        
    Tenacity The resistance of a dough to being stretched.        
    Three-fold A technique used to increase the number of layers in puff pastry or Danish pastry by folding the dough in thirds.        
    Tiramisu An Italian dessert made of ladyfinger sponge, flavored with espresso coffee and a creamy cheese filling.        
    Torte German for various types of cakes, usually layer cakes.        
    Trans fat A solid fat, usually manufactured by hydrogenation, which limits the body's ability to rid itself of cholesterol.        
    Tullie A thin, crisp cookie molded into a cup shape.        
    Tunneling A condition of muffin products characterized by large, elongated holes; caused by overmixing.        
    Turntable A pedestal with a flat, rotating top, used for holding cakes while they are being decorated.        
    Two-stage method A cake-mixing method that begins with the blending of flour and high-ratio shortening and is followed by the addition of liquids. Also called the high-ratio method.        
    UHT pasteurization: Ultra Heat Treated or Ultra High Temperature pasteurization. Subjection to a relatively high heat for a defined period in order to kill microorganisms and extend shelf life.        
    Ultra pasteurized: See UHT pasteurization.        
    Unsaturated fat A fat that is normally liquid at room temperature.        
    Vacherin A crisp meringue shell filled with cream, fruits, or other items.        
    Vegan A vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products, including dairy products and eggs.        
    Virus An extremely small microorganism, smaller than bacteria, responsible for a variety of diseases.        
    Vital wheat gluten Wheat gluten in a concentrated form, usually about 75% by weight, added to flour to improve the quality of yeast-raised doughs.        
    Vitamin Any of a group of compounds that are present in foods in very small quantities and are necessary for regulating body functions.        
    Wash (1) n. A liquid brushed onto the surface of a product, usually before baking. (2) v. To apply such a liquid.        
    Water hardness The mineral content of water.        
    Water pack A type of canned fruit or vegetable containing the water used to process the item.        
    Weak flour Flour with a low protein content.        
    Whipping cream Cream with a high enough fat content, usually above 30%, to enable it to be whipped into a foam.        
    White couverture A confection consisting of cocoa butter, milk solids, and sugar. Sometimes erroneously called white chocolate.        
    Whole milk Milk with 3.5% fat content.        
    Whole-wheat flour Flour made by grinding the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ.        
    Yeast pre-ferment A dough or batter fermented with commercial yeast and used to provide leavening for a larger batch of dough.        
    Yeast starter Another name for yeast pre-ferment.        
    Yogurt Milk cultured with special bacteria until thick. Young dough: A dough that is under fermented.        
    Zabaglione An Italian dessert or sauce made of whipped egg yolks and Marsala wine.        
    Zest The colored outer portion of the peel of citrus fruits.        


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