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2.2: Types of Disabilities and Barriers

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    15492
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    striped_lollipop_morgaine1976-300px-150x150-1-e1521733755321.pngLulu is feeling very positive about the idea that her business, and the website of which she is so proud, could soon be more accessible and easier for all of her customers to use. This brings her to the predictable question of “Where do we begin?” Lulu should start by getting a firm grasp on “the big picture” in terms of what barriers people might encounter on her website and why. From there she can begin to build practical knowledge that will support her next steps. Take a look at the content that follows to better understand the foundation of information that Lulu and her team will require. In order to understand what web accessibility auditing tests for and why, it is helpful to have a basic understanding of a range of disabilities and their related barriers with respect to the consumption of web content.

    Not all people with disabilities encounter barriers on the Web, and those with different types of disabilities encounter different types of barriers. For instance, if a person is in a wheelchair they may encounter no barriers at all in web content. A person who is blind will experience different barriers than a person with limited vision. Different types of disabilities and some of their commonly associated barriers are described here.

    Watch the following video to see how students with disabilities experience the Internet.

    Video: Experiences of a Student with Disabilities

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    In this video, David Berman talks about types of disabilities and their associated barriers.

    Video: Web Accessibility Matters: Difficulties and Technologies: Avoiding Tradeoffs

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    People Who Are Blind

    People who are blind tend to face many barriers in web content, given the visual nature of the Web. They will often use a screen reader to access their computer or device and may use a refreshable Braille display to convert text to Braille.

    Common barriers for this group include:

    • Visual content that has no text alternative
    • Functional elements that cannot be controlled with a keyboard
    • Overly complex or excessive amounts of content
    • Inability to navigate within a page of content
    • Content that is not structured
    • Inconsistent navigation
    • Time limits (insufficient time to complete tasks)
    • Unexpected actions (e.g., redirect when an element receives focus)
    • Multimedia without audio description

    For a quick look at how a person who is blind might use a screen reader like JAWS to navigate the Web, watch the following video.

    Video: Accessing the Web Using Screen Reading Software

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    People with Low Vision

    People with low vision are often able to see web content if it is magnified. They may use a screen magnification program to increase the size and contrast of the content to make it more visible. They are less likely to use a screen reader than a person who is blind, though in some cases they will. People with low vision may rely on the magnification or text customization features in their web browser, or they may install other magnification or text reading software.

    Common barriers for this group include:

    • Content sized with absolute measures that is not resizable
    • Inconsistent navigation
    • Images of text that degrade or pixelate when magnified
    • Low contrast (inability to distinguish text from background)
    • Time limits (insufficient time to complete tasks)
    • Unexpected actions (e.g., redirect when an element receives focus)

    See the following video for a description of some of the common barriers for people with low vision.

    Video: Creating an Accessible Web

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    People Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Most people who are Deaf tend to face barriers where audio content is presented without text-based alternatives and encounter relatively few barriers on the Web otherwise. Those who are Deaf and blind will face many more barriers, including those described for people who are blind. For those who communicate with American Sign Language (ASL) or other sign languages, such as Langue des signes québécoise (LSQ), the written language of a website may produce barriers similar to those faced when reading in a second language.

    Common barriers for this group include:

    • Audio without a transcript
    • Multimedia without captions or transcript
    • Lack of ASL interpretation (for ASL/Deaf community)

    People with Mobility-Related Disabilities

    Mobility-related disabilities are quite varied. As mentioned earlier, one could be limited to a wheelchair for getting around and face no significant barriers in web content. Those who have limited use of their hands or who have fine motor impairments that limit their ability to target elements in web content with a mouse pointer may not use a mouse at all. Instead, they might rely on a keyboard or perhaps their voice, along with switches to control mouse clicks, to control movement through web content.

    Common barriers for this group include:

    • Clickable areas that are too small
    • Functional elements that cannot be controlled with a keyboard
    • Time limits (insufficient time to complete tasks)

    People with Learning or Cognitive Disabilities

    Learning and cognitive-related disabilities can be as varied as mobility-related disabilities, perhaps more so. These disabilities can range from a mild reading-related disability to very severe cognitive impairments that may result in limited use of language and difficulty processing complex information. For most of the disabilities in this range, there are some common barrier and others that only affect those with more severe cognitive disabilities.

    Common barriers for this group include:

    • Use of overly-complex/advanced language
    • Inconsistent navigation
    • Overly complex or excessive amounts of content
    • Time limits (insufficient time to complete tasks)
    • Unstructured content (no visible headings, sections, topics, etc.)
    • Unexpected actions (e.g., redirect when an element receives focus)

    More specific disability-related issues include:

    • Reading: text justification (inconsistent spacing between words)
    • Reading: images of text (not readable with a text reader)
    • Visual: visual content with no text description
    • Math: images of math equations (not readable with a math reader)

    Everyone

    While we generally think of barriers in terms of access for people with disabilities, there are some barriers that impact all types of users, though these are often thought of in terms of usability. Usability and accessibility go hand-in-hand. Adding accessibility features improves usability for others. Many people, including those who do not consider themselves to have a specific disability (such as those over the age of 50) may find themselves experiencing typical age-related loss of sight, hearing, or cognitive ability. Those with varying levels of colour blindness may also fall into this group.

    Some of these usability issues include:

    • Link text that does not describe the destination or function of the link
    • Overly complex content
    • Inconsistent navigation
    • Low contrast
    • Unstructured content

    To learn more about disabilities and associated barriers, read the following:

    Readings and References: How People with Disabilities Use the Web

    2.2: Types of Disabilities and Barriers is shared under a CC BY-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Digital Education Strategies, The Chang School.

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