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    • 1.1: Source Water Quality
      A  finite amount of water on our planet (0.34%) is available to treat for human consumption. Knowing where the water comes from assists certified operators in treating raw source water to make it potable. Newer technology has been developed to treat salinized or salty water found in the ocean. These treatment methods are still extremely expensive and not widely accessible. Supplying water to the public is an extremely important function in society as water is the basic building block of life.
    • 1.2: Water Chemistry and Standards
      Water treatment is a complex process that involves parts that the human eye cannot see. In this chapter, you will learn about the basic scientific principals related to the water treatment. We will also discuss drinking water standards in the United States and different community standards.
    • 1.3: Microorganisms
      The most important job of a Water Treatment Operator is providing reliable and quality water to the public. This is accomplished through chemical deactivation or physical removal of disease-causing microorganisms in the water. Microorganisms are deactivated by the addition of a chemical such as Chlorine or Ozone while physical removal is accomplished with the use of a filtration system.
    • 1.4: Coagulation and Flocculation
      One of the most important steps in the water treatment process is the removal of suspended solids. The two-part process in water treatment involves chemical deactivation and physical removal of pathogenic organisms. The physical removal of pathogens is accomplished in several steps. The first two steps include the processes of coagulation and flocculation, where colloidal particles are destabilized to gather all the suspended material together. They can also be referred to as nonstable solids.
    • 1.5: Sedimentation
      Sedimentation is the 3rd step in a conventional treatment process. It occurs after coagulation and flocculation and before filtration. Sedimentation removes suspended solids with the use of gravity by slowing the flow of water down to allow material to settle. The settleable solids fall to the bottom of the sedimentation basin reducing the load on the filtration process. A sedimentation basin acts like a lake in the sense that it allows particles to settle naturally.
    • 1.6: Filtration
      Filtration is the final and most important removal requirement required by the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). Water passes through material such as sand, gravel, and anthracite coal to remove floc and disease-causing microorganisms from the finished water. Physical removal of colloids is also achieved during sedimentation but this filtration is the final step. This is the process where suspended colloidal particles are removed from the water.
    • 1.7: Disinfection
      The final step in the water treatment process before finished or treated water enters a clearwell for storage is the disinfection process and is the process where chemical agents are added to a water source to kill or inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic microorganisms are disease-causing and must be eliminated from treated water. As populations increase and freshwater sources become scarcer, the ability to remove and deactivate microorganisms becomes increasingly important.
    • 1.8: Chlorine
      Chlorine is the chemical most frequently used in the water treatment industry for disinfection purposes to meet the standards of the surface water treatment rule. Chlorine is used in several different forms and can be fed into the system in a variety of different methods. It is a very dangerous chemical, so proper safety and handling procedures must always be followed. Chlorine may also be used as a controlling agent for the removal of algae, for taste, and for odor.
    • 1.9: Chloramination and Nitrification
      The use of chlorine causes any number of disinfectant by-products with many have not been researched and are not regularly monitored. E.g., trihalomethanes are disinfectant by-products of chlorine disinfection and are classified as volatile organic chemicals and their increasing levels in raw water pushes the use of chloramine as the preferred disinfectant. In this chapter, we will discuss chloramine disinfection and the associated challenges that come with its implementation.
    • 1.10: Laboratory
      Working in a laboratory is probably something you never thought about when deciding to explore the career of water treatment. However, working in a laboratory is one of the more critical aspects of the profession. Many larger agencies have a dedicated staff of laboratory personnel that handles a lot of the day to day water quality analysis, but operators still play a key role.

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