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1.1.4: Metacognition in Action

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    Learning Objectives

    • Recognize appropriate study strategies in particular situations.

    Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    You get an assignment and ask yourself:

    “What exactly does this assignment involve and what have I learned in this course that is relevant to it?”

    You are exercising metacognitive skills #1 and #2 by assessing the task and evaluating your strengths and weaknesses in relation to it. If you think about what steps you need to take to complete the assignment and determine when it is reasonable to begin, you are exercising skill #3 by planning. If you start in on your plan and realize that you are working more slowly than you anticipated, you are putting skill #4 to work by applying a strategy and monitoring your performance. Finally, if you reflect on your performance in relation to your time frame for the task, and discover an equally effective but more efficient way to work, you are engaged in skill #5 of reflecting and adjusting your approach as needed.


    1. Chi, M. T. H., Bassock, M., Lewis, M. W., Reimann, P., and Glaser, R. (1989). "Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems." Cognitive Science. Volume 13. 145-182 Pages.
    2. Dunning, D. (2007). Self-insight: Roadblocks and detours on the path to knowing thyself. New York: Taylor and Francis.
    3. Hayes, J. R., and Flower, L. S. (1986). "Writing research and the writer." American Psychologist Special Issue: Psychological Science and Education. Volume 41. 1106-1113 Pages.
    4. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1987). "What’s all the fuss about metacognition?." In A. H. Schoenfeld (Ed.), Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education. 189-215 Pages. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    5. Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., and Norman, M. K. (2010). How Learning Works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    1.1.4: Metacognition in Action is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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