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5.6: LANs, WANs, and the Internet

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    Overview of Network Components

    The link between the sender and the receiver can be as simple as a single cable connection between these two devices or more sophisticated as a set of switches and routers between them.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Lan-wan Networks. Image by Stuart Gray is licensed CC BY-SA

    The network framework contains three classes of network segments:

    • Devices
    • Media
    • Services

    Devices and media are the physical components, or equipment, of the network. Equipment is regularly the noticeable segment of the network stage, for example, a PC, switch, remote passageway, or the cabling used to associate the devices.

    Administrations incorporate a significant number of the basic network applications individuals utilize each day, similar to email facilitating administrations and web facilitating administrations. Procedures give the usefulness that coordinates and moves the messages through the network. Procedures are more subtle to us yet are basic to the activity of networks.

    End Devices

    An end device is either the source or destination of a message transmitted over the network. Each end device is identified by an IP address and a physical address. Both addresses are needed to communicate over a network. IP addresses are unique logical IP addresses that are assigned to every device within a network. If a device moves from one network to another, then the IP address has to be modified.

    Physical addresses, also known as MAC (Media Access Control) addresses, are unique addresses assigned by the device manufacturers. These addresses are permanently burned into the hardware.

    Intermediary Network Devices

    Some devices act as intermediaries between devices. They are called delegated devices. These delegate devices give availability and guarantee that information streams over the network.

    Routers utilize the destination end device address, related to data about the network interconnections, to decide how messages should take through the network.

    Network Media

    A medium called network media carries the act of transport data. The medium gives the channel over which the message makes a trip from source to destination.

    Present-day organizations basically utilize three sorts of media to interconnect devices and give the pathway over which information can be transmitted.

    These media are:

    • Metallic wires within cables (Copper) - information is encoded into electrical driving forces.
    • Glass or plastic fibers (fiber optic cable) - information is encoded as beats of light.
    • Wireless transmission - information is encoded utilizing frequencies from the electromagnetic range.

    Various sorts of network media have various highlights and advantages. Not all network media have similar qualities, nor are they all appropriate for the same purpose.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): Network Cables. Image by blickpixel from Pixabay is licensed CC BY SA
    Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\): Fiber Optic Cable. Image by blickpixel from Pixabay is licensed CC BY SA


    While Bluetooth is not generally used to connect a device to the Internet, it is an important wireless technology that has enabled many functionalities that are used every day. When created in 1994 by Ericsson, it was intended to replace wired connections between devices. Today, it is the standard method for connecting nearby devices wirelessly. Bluetooth has a range of approximately 300 feet and consumes very little power, making it an excellent choice for various purposes.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\): Bluetooth combo wordmark 2011. Image by House is licensed under Public Domain

    Some applications of Bluetooth include: connecting a printer to a personal computer, connecting a mobile phone and headset, connecting a wireless keyboard and mouse to a computer, and connecting a remote for a presentation made on a personal computer.